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Stuttering (Stammering)

It is a speech disorder by blocking of sound or a struggle to speak, resulting in a repetition of words or sound. The speaking Pattern of the stutterer may vary from mild difficulty with initial syllables of certain words to violent ----------- and momentary inability to utter any sound at all. A stutterer also exhibits a few motor -----------, like eye blinking, jerking of hands, tremor of the lips, frowning, swallowing, fist clenching, feet stamping ----------------
Causes:
It develops from various stressors that hamper normal speech, particularly during the early stages of speech development. Any stressful situation that leads to severe feelings of inadequacy, self consciousness, anxiety, fear and tension also tends to impaired psychomotor coordinator and performance.
Treatment:
  • Speech Therapy
  • Aversion Conditioning
  • Desensitization
  • Rhythm Exercises
  • Assertiveness Training
  • Hypnosis
  • Social Reinforcement of Fluency
  • Delay of Auditory Feedback

Bed Wetting (Enuresis)

Bed Wetting refers to the habitual involuntary discharge of urine after the age of three. It is more common at nights but it may also occur during the day.

Among older children, enuresis often occurs in conjunction with dreams in which the child imagines that he is urinating in a toilet. He immediately wakes up to discover that he has wet the bed. It commonly occurs from two to five times a week.

Causes:
  • Faulty learning or lack of toilet training. This often results from maternal over protection and the mother’s lack of knowledge about proper toilet.
  • Personal immaturity associated with or stemming from emotional problem.
  • Disturbed family atmosphere that leads to sustained anxiety and hostility.
  • In some Instances, a child may regress to bed wetting when a new baby is born in the family and replaces him as the centre of attention.
  • Child may resorts to bed-wetting when he feels hostile towards the parents and wants to get even with them.
  • It is also regarded as a revenge responsive case, which is in retaliation to the nagging , punitive attitude of the mother.

The main difficulty facing enuretic children is that they have not learnt to wake up before bed-wetting occurs. This is because the body mechanism (i.e , bladder tension does not arouse them from sleep.

Treatment: Psychotherapies are the only treatment.

Sleep-Walking (Somnambulism)

Some children experiences regular or periodic sleep-walking episodes. These children usually go to sleep in a normal manner, but get up during the second or third hour of their sleep and carry out some act.

This sleep walk may take the child to another room of the house or even outside and may involve rather complex activities. Such episodes usually last from 15 minutes to about an hour. This child finally returns to bed, but in the morning he cannot recall anything that had taken place during his sleep-walk. During sleep walking the child’s eyes are partially or fully open, he avoids obstacles, hear when spoken to and ordinarily responds to commands such as being told to return to bed.

Causes:
Sleep:

Generally, the over anxious and withdrawal reactions of childhood appear to result in sleep disturbances, oversensitivity, unrealistic fears, nightmares etc.

Failure to sleep when parents expect them to may be due to unrealistic expectations of parents.

In the first four weeks after birth, most babies wake up twice for feeds in the night. By about ten weeks, the night feed is dropped but the babies may still get up due to some disturbances. At the age of about six months, children may awaken with a sudden scream due to a nightmare. Between the ages of two and three years, children may awake due to a full bladder.

Treatment: Psychotherapies are the only treatment.

“Let it be any problem, Dr. Jaishree Jain- Senior Consultant Clinical Psychologist, is here to help you! Break your inhibition and come forward! Take a step ahead to better your life!”